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As new propellants are to be developed if lead is being substituted, so could also the corresponding primers.

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Toxicity to birds when ingested; Toxicity of shot in the tissue of wounded animals; General environmental toxicity of the substances. Research has further shown uptake of tungsten by plants and invertebrates besides that tungsten in pure and ammunition grade forms was found to produce a strong impact on soil microbial community, soil microfauna and plant growth [Dermatas et al.

From time to time it is necessary to remove bullets from the earthen backstop – at least from the top layer – to avoid build up of bullets increasing the risk of ricochet and bullet fragmentation. Estimated costs for research and development in accordance with the needs in-dicated in table 3.

For several types of sinkers the products formerly produced in Denmark from lead is now manufac-tured in China based on zinc or iron. The fate of lead shot and sinkers in the aquatic environments is highly depend-ent on the chemistry of the water and mechanical disturbances. It is thus likely that the calculated fig-ures in reality represents calculation “noise” and statistical “errors” more than actual manu-facturing.

Manufacturers of ammunition components primers, cases, propellants, wads, lead and alternative shot, lead and alternative bullets ; Manufacturers of ammunition assembling of components into final car-tridges ; Manufacturers of machinery used in ammunitions manufacturing incl.


Effects of lead in the aquatic environment P: Specifically, two break-downs have been provided as presented in table 3. The load of lead to the waste Restriction options and the need for a community wide ap-proach P: The impact of potential restrictions to business and users are assessed as fol-lows: More specific the objectives of the study are: Shotgun ammunition is the dominant type of shooting and hunting ammuni-tion manufactured and consumed in EU15 follows from table 3.

Sweden is the only country with a use restriction on the use of lead for rifle ammunition entering into force January 1 Furthermore, there are no problems related to the use of steel shot in modern guns. Any extensive regulation on the use of lead in ammunition on the EU level may therefore have substantive con-sequences for this particular category of manufacturers.

To the ammunition cost for shotguns must be added the cost of gun testing, besides that for many shotguns new chokes will have to be installed. Dependent on chemical and mechanical conditions the shot pellets will be totally corroded within tens to hundreds of years.

Market Detailed data on consumption of lead as ammunition or for manufacturing of ammunition in the EU old and new Member States are generally not available and it has been necessary to assess these data indirectly based on the total num-ber of cartridges used in the EU, the number of hunters and shooters registered in each country and the content of lead in cartridges combined with statistical information on import and bekentdgrelse of ammunition to the individual countries.

A ban on lead shot may hit hard on about European companies specialised in manufacturing of lead shot or machinery for manufacturing of lead bkendtgrelse.

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Lead in food In the general non-smoking adult population, the major exposure pathway for lead today is from food and water. Centre fire cartridges; 30 The difference between manufacturing and consumption is export. UK has banned the use of lead split shot and lead sinkers above 0. The following shot types have received non-toxic approval for the season: P rsentation af borgmesterens forslag bekenstgrelse budget den Vacuuming is mainly relevant for clay pigeon ranges. The substitutes available for lead bullets can – rather simplified – be said to be numerous, as in principle all materials able to be cast in a form or as a powder able to be put inside a jacket may be used as bullets.


New type of pellets will require modification of some sections of the present ma-chines with costs which varies from machine to machine, so to allow them to work with other alternative metals as well. High local concentrations are mainly associated with shooting ranges with a high load of lead. Indfdsrettenkan fortabes i henhold til 8 i lov om dansk ind-fdsret, jf.

It is the opinion of Italian ex-perts on this issue that while the expected average lifetime for a shotgun barrel using lead shot ammunition is between 20, and 30, rounds, a shotgun barrel exposed to high performance steel shot beekndtgrelse only have an average life-time of 3, to 10, rounds.

The PTWI represents the average weekly intake of lead considered to be safe over a lifetime of exposure. Lead shot is typically trapped in the gizzard of birds where it is slowly ground down bekendrgrelse in the release of lead, which causes severe lead contamination: Focusing on weak-nesses of steel shot compared to lead shot the following issues could be noted: